Research peptides are amino acid polymers that are considerably smaller than proteins. These peptides and their synthetic analogs are used in a range of pre-clinical assays, ranging from sequence determination, bioinformatic and structure-function analyses, cell culture and manipulation in vitro, to dose-response and phenotypic analysis experiments in laboratory-bred animal or plant models in vivo.
Thousands of research peptides have been isolated from diverse sources, including spider venom [1-2], cone snails , fish , plants [5-7], bacteria , and virus-specific memory T cells .
Research peptides are used in a pre-clinical setting only, because their properties have not been tested sufficiently rigorously for them to be declared safe for use in humans, domestic or livestock animals, or in large-scale agricultural applications. Once they have demonstrated reproducible safety, target specificity and bioactivity in vitro and in animal/plant models in vivo, they may proceed to more rigorous evaluation in multi-phase trials, as potential therapeutic peptides.
At Genaxxon bioscience, we offer a customised peptide synthesis service that includes: peptide design, de novo peptide synthesis, and in silico and in vitro structure-function analyses of unmodified and modified research peptides, using state-of-the-art equipment and techniques.
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Therapeutic peptides are manufactured, processed and tested using best practice protocols, to ensure the highest possible levels of safety, efficacy and cleanliness, and to minimise environmental artefacts that may affect trial data and reproducibility. Peptide candidates are only approved for clinical use, if they demonstrate repeated safety, efficacy and a low, but acceptable, risk of adverse events in controlled, multi-phase clinical trials.
Several therapeutic peptides are either undergoing clinical trials, or are in current clinical use as anti-tumor vaccines [9-11], hormones , signaling molecules , modulators of the immune response , analgesics  or antimicrobial agents , to name a few examples. Their structure makes them amenable to precise molecular modifications, that aim to eliminate off-target effects, reduce toxicity, and/or enhance the efficacy, safety of the peptide . Therapeutic peptides represent a ground-breaking advance in precision medicine, and offer great potential as an additional treatment option in the future, for a range of clinical diseases and disorders.
Genaxxon bioscience will be happy to assist you with all your peptide synthesis needs!
1.RIGO, FK, TREVISAN, G, ROSA, FK, et al. “Spider peptide Phα1β induces analgesic effect in a model of cancer pain”. Cancer Sci 2013; 104(9): 1226-30.
2.WORMWOOD, KL, NGOUNOU WETIE, AG, GOMEZ, MV, et al. “Structural characterization and disulphide assignment of spider peptide Phα1β by mass spectrometry”. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2018; 29(5): 827-841.
3.GAO, B, PENG, C, YANG, J, et al. “Cone snails: a big store of conotoxins for novel drug discovery”. Toxins (Basel) 2017; 9(12). Pii: E397. doi: 10.3390/toxins9120397.
4. SHABIR, U, ALI, S, MAGRAY, AR, et al. “Fish antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as essential and promising molecular therapeutic agents: a review”. Microb Pathog 2018; 114: 50-56.
5.CRAIK, DJ, LEE, MH, REHM, FBH, et al. “Ribosomally-synthesised cyclic peptides from plants as drug leads and pharmaceutical scaffolds”. Bioorg Med Chem 2018; 26(10): 2727-2737.
6. FICARRA, FA, GRANDELLIS, C, GARAVAGLIA, BS, et al. “Bacterial and plant natriuretic peptides improve plant defence responses against pathogens”. Mol Plant Pathol 2018; 19(4): 801-811.
7. ALBERT, M. “Peptides as triggers of plant defence”. J Exp Biol 2013; 64(17): 5269-5279.
8.ROSATO, PC, WILEVESINGHE, S, STOLLEY, JM, et al. “Virus-specific memory T cells populate tumors and can be repurposed for tumor immunotherapy”. Nat Commun 2019; 10(1): 567.
9. HIRAYAMA, M, NISHIMURA, Y. “The present status and future prospects of peptide-based cancer vaccines”. Int Immunol 2016; 28(7): 319-328.
10. FUJIWARA, Y, OKADA, K, OMORI, T, et al. “Multiple therapeutic peptide vaccines for patients with advanced gastric cancer”. Int J Oncol 2017; 50(5): 1655-1662.
11. OKA, Y, TSUBOI, A, NAKATA, J, et al. “Wilms’ Tumor Gene 1 (WT1) peptide vaccine therapy for haematological malignancies: from CTL epitope identification to recent progress in clinical studies including a cure-oriented strategy”. Oncol Res Treat 2017; 40(11): 682-690.
12. OYAMA, MA, SOLTER, PF, THORN, CL, et al. “Feasibility, safety, and tolerance of subcutaneous synthetic canine B-type natriuretic peptide (syncBNP) in healthy dogs and dogs with stage B1 mitral valve disease”. J Vet Cardiol 2017; 19(3): 211-217.
13. BRUNO, PA, MORRISS-ANDREWS, A, HENDERSON, AR, et al. “A synthetic loop replacement peptide that blocks canonical NF-ĸB signaling”. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2016; 55(48): 14997-15001.
14. SCHALL, N, MULLER, S. “Resetting the autoreactive immune system with a therapeutic peptide in lupus”. Lupus 2015; 24(4-5): 412-418.
15. HANNON, HE, ATCHISON, WD. “Omega-conotoxins as experimental tools and therapeutics in pain management”. Mar Drugs 2013; 11(3): 680-699.
16. SHANG, D, LI, X, SUN, Y, et al. “Design of potent, non-toxic antimicrobial agents based upon the structure of the frog skin peptide, temporin-1CEb from Chinese brown frog, Rana chensinensis”. Chem Biol Drug Des 2012; 79(5): 653-662.
Proteins - Peptides - Amino acids: Research Peptides vs Therapeutic Peptides