A special regulatory strategy of genome translation in RNA viruses and bacterias is mediated via RNA thermometers. RNA thermometers (RNATs) are secondary structures in RNA sequences that are essential for the virulence of the organism. However the base pairing in the RNA thermometers can be altered due to various factors like the thermal denaturation.
Wine production, while considered an art form, owes an increasing debt to the latest molecular genetic technologies. Not only do these facilitate batch-to-batch consistency, they also enable the generation of novel strains of grape microflora. While the choice of grapes is important, so too is the interplay between extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and the technological decisions made at every step in the process. Together, these determine whether the finished product will be classed as a “vintage wine”, a “quaffing wine”, or “vinegar”.